IELTS Listening Test 3 – Section 4

IELTS Listening Test 3 Section 4

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IELTS Listening Test 3 Section 4

Test Instruction: SECTION 4  Questions 31-40

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.


Ethnography: research which explores human cultures

It can be used in business:

•    to investigate customer needs and 31

•    to help companies develop new designs

Examples of ethnographic research in business

Kitchen equipment

•    Researchers found that cooks could not easily see the 32 in measuring cups.

Cell phones

•    In Uganda, customers paid to use the cell phones of entrepreneurs

•    These customers wanted to check the 33 used.

Computer companies

•    There was a need to develop 34 to improve communication between system administrators and colleagues.


•    Nurses needed to access information about 35 in different parts of the hospital.


•    Respondents recorded information about their 36 while travelling.

Principles of ethnographic research in business

•    The researcher does not start off with a hypothesis.

•    Participants may be selected by criteria such as age, 37 or product used.

•    The participants must feel 38 about taking part in the research.

•    There is usually direct 39 of the participants.

•    The interview is guided by the participant.

•    A lot of time is needed for the 40 of the data.

•    Researchers look for a meaningful pattern in the data.



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