Cambridge IELTS 10 – Test 2- Reading Passage 1 – Step By Step Solution

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IELTS 10 Test 2 reading passage 1

Cambridge IELTS 10 – Test 2- Reading Passage 1 Full Solution. IELTS Reading Practice Test.

READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 on the following pages.

Tea and the Industrial Revolution

 

A Cambridge professor says that a change in drinking babits was the reason for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Anjana Abuja reports

A     Alan Macfarlane, professor of anthropological science at King’s College, Cambridge has, like other historians, spent decades wrestling with the enigma of the Industrial Revolution. Why did this particular Big Bang – the world-changing birth of industry-happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?

B      Macfarlane compares the puzzle to a combination lock. ‘There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen,’ he says. For industry to take off, there needs to be the technology and power to drive actories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen. While this was the case for England, other nations, such as Japan, the Netherlands and France also met some of these criteria but were not industrialising. All these factors must have been necessar. But not sufficient to cause the revolution,5 says Macfarlane. ‘After all, Holland had everything except coal while China also had many of these factors. Most historians are convinced there are one or two missing factors that you need to open the lock.’

C      The missing factors, he proposes, are to be found in almost even kitchen curpboard. Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favourite drinks, fuelled the revolution. The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery. The theory sounds eccentric but once he starts to explain the detective work that went into his deduction, the scepticism gives way to wary admiration. Macfarlanes case has been strengthened by support rrom notable quarters – Roy Porter, the distinguished medical historian, recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research.

D      Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about. Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Between about 1650 and 1740,the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth. Macfarlane says: ‘The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes. People suggested four possible causes. Was there a sudden change in the viruses and bacteria around? Unlikely. Was there a revolution in medical science? But this was a century before Lister’s revolution*. Was there a change in environmental conditions? There were improvements in agriculture that wiped out malaria, but these were small gains. Sanitation did not become widespread until the 19th century. The only option left is food. But the height and weight statistics show a decline. So the food must have got worse. Efforts to explain this sudden reduction in child deaths appeared to draw a blank.’

E      This population burst seemed to happen at just the right time to provide labour for the Industrial Revolution. ‘When you start moving towards an industrial revolution, it is economically efficient to have people living close together,’  says Macfarlane. ‘But then you get disease, particularly from human waste.’ Some digging around in historical records revealed that there was a change in the incidence of water-borne disease at that time, especially dysentery. Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease. He says, ‘We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again. What caused this?’

F    Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? Macfarlane then noted that the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates. Tea was relatively expensive until Britain started a direct dipper trade with China in the early 18th century. By the 1740s, about the time that infant mortality was dipping, the drink was common. Macfarlane guessed that the fact that water had to be boiled, together with the stomach-purifying properties of tea meant that the breast milk provided by mothers was healthier than it had ever been. No other European nation sipped tea like the British, which, by Macfarlanes logic, pushed these other countries out of contention for the revolution.

G      But, if tea is a factor in the combination lock, why didn’t Japan forge ahead in a tea-soaked industrial revolution of its own? Macfarlane notes that even though 17th-century Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market, it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work. So, the nation that we now think of as one of the most technologically advanced entered the 19th century having ‘abandoned the wheel’.

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet

List of Headings

i The search for the reasons for an increase in population

ii    Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment

iii  The development of cities in Japan 4 The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

iv  The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

v  The cases of Holland, France and China

vi   Changes in drinking habits in Britain

vii  Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution

viii  Conditions required for industrialisation

ix  Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer

1    Paragraph A

2    Paragraph B

3     Paragraph C

4     Paragraph D

5     Paragraph E

6     Paragraph F

7     Paragraph G

 

Questions 3-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

8. China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century.

9. Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain.

10. Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings.

11.  After 1740,there was a reduction in population in Britain.

12. People in Britain used to make beer at home.

13. The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

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Step by step solution to CAMBREDGE IELTS 10 – TEST 2 – Reading Passage 1Tea and the Industrial Revolution

 

Choose the correct heading

Questions 1-7

List of Headings (with key words)

i The search for the reasons for an increase in population.

ii    Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment

iii  The development of cities in Japan

iv  The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

v  The cases of Holland, France and China

vi   Changes in drinking habits in Britain

vii  Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution

viii  Conditions required for industrialisation

ix  Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer

 

1.    Paragraph A

….Industrial Revolution. Why did this particular Big Bang – the world-changing birth of industry-happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?

 This line is taken from the last segment of paragraph A. Here place (in Britain) and time (at the and of the 18th century) of revolution is clearly discussed. That is matched with the keyword of List of Heading iv. The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

**So the answer is iv.

2    Paragraph B

Macfarlane compares the puzzle to a combination lock. ‘There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen,’

This line is taken from 1st line of paragraph B. Here 20 different factors that is for conditions, need to that is for required revolution can happen that is for industrialigation.  It is clearly matched with the keyword of List of Heading viii.  Conditions required for industrialisation.

**So the answer is viii

3     Paragraph C

The missing factors, he proposes, are to be found in almost even kitchen curpboard. Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favourite drinks, fuelled the revolution.

This line is taken from 1st line of paragraph C. Here tea and beer are the two keys to fuelled revolution. that matched with the list of Heading  vii.  Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution.

**So the answer is vii

4     Paragraph D

Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about. Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Between about 1650 and 1740,the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth. Macfarlane says: ‘The infant mortality

This line is taken from 1st line of paragraph D. Here How revolution came about is the search for reason and a brust in population that means increase in population.  That is clearly match with the list of Heading- i. The search for the reasons for an increase in population.

** So the answer is ii

5     Paragraph E

Some digging around in historical records revealed that there was a change in the incidence of water-borne disease at that time, especially dysentery. Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease.

This line is taken from the 3rd line of the paragraph E.  Here, It is clear that the drinking habit of British is changing. So that is matched with the List of heading –vi.   Changes in drinking habits in Britain

**So the answer is vi.

6     Paragraph F

Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? Macfarlane then noted that the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates.

This line is taken from 1st segment of the paragraph F. Here writer clearly make a comparison between japan and Britain. The Heading – ix  Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer is clearly matched.

** So the the answer is ix

ix  Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer

7     Paragraph G

But, if tea is a factor in the combination lock, why didn’t Japan forge ahead in a tea-soaked industrial revolution of its own?……. it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work.

This line is taken from 1st line of paragraph G. Here worked based revolution means industrialisation and afraid that put people put of work means fear of unemployment. So Heading ii Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment clearly matched with the paragraph G

**So the answer is ii

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TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

Questions 3-13

8. China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century.

….China also had many of these factors. Most historians are convinced there are one or two missing factors that you need to open the lock.’

This line is taken from last line of paragraph B. Here mentioned about one or two missing factors but nothing says about the missing factors or about the other factors that is suitable for industry in china.

**So the answer is NOT GIVEN

9. Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain.

…tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery.

This line is taken from 2nd line of paragraph C.  Here without succumbing to waterborne diseases usch as dysentery is replaced by helped to prevent dysentery.

**So the answer is TRUE

10. Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings.

Macfarlanes case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters – Roy Porter, the distinguished medical historian, recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research.

This line is taken from last line of paragraph C.  Here strengthened by support means agrees with not disagrees.

**So the answer is FALSE

11.  After 1740, there was a reduction in population in Britain.

Between about 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth.

This line is taken from the 3rd line of paragraph D. Here it is clear that after 1740,  a burst in population growth, not reduction. 

**So the answer  is FALSE

12.  People in Britain used to make beer at home.

He says, ‘We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again.

This line is taken from last segment of paragraph E. Here tax on malt turned the poor to drink water and gin but nothing says about whether beer makes at home or not.

**So the answer is NOT GIVEN

13. The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again.

This line is taken from last line of paragraph E. Here tax on malt directly effect changed in drinking habit thus mortality rate  began to rise that is rise in the death rate. So indirect effect is rise in death rate.

**So the answer is TRUE

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**Related vocabulary and synonym.