Cambridge IELTS 10 – Test 1- Reading Passage 2 – Step By Step Solution

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Cambridge IELTS 10 – Test 1- Reading Passage 2 Full Solution.

 

EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
1990-2010

What have been the trends and what are the prospects for European transport systems?


A It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.

B As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ”stock” economy to a ”flow” economy. This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.

C The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998,road haulage increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although – and this could benefit the enlarged EU – it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member states.

However, a new imperative-sustainable development – offers an opportunity for adapting the EU,s common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years‟ time, that is by 2040.

E In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2,the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020,compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.

F At the same time greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing marginalisation, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.

G The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of transport. In the short term it might curb the growth in road transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to take up the baton.

H The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach, but road transport would keep the lion‟s share of the market and continue to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.

The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network. This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious than it looks, bearing in mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years, but would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and economic growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and goods.

Questions 14-21

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.

Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E and G-I from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number,i-xi, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet

List of Headings

i    A fresh and important long-term goal

ii  Charging for roads and improving other transport methods

iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported

iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns

v  The environmental costs of road transport

vi  The escalating cost of rail transport

vii The need to achieve transport rebalance

viii The rapid growth of private transport

ix  Plans to develop major road networks

x  Restricting road use through charging policies alone

xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission

14   Paragraph A                                                19   Paragraph G
15   Paragraph B                                                20   Paragraph H
16   Paragraph C                                                21   Paragraph I
17  Paragraph D
18  Paragraph E

Questions 22-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

22. The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.

23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.

24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.

25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.

26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

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Step by step solution to CAMBREDGE IELTS 10 – TEST 1 – Reading Passage 2 – EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
1990-2010

Step 1: Read 1st and 2nd one of the TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN question, and mark keywords of it.

Q#22. The need for transport is growing despite, technological development.

Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.

Step 2: Now start reading the passage from A  to find out the keywords or Alternative keywords from the passage of questions mentioned in step 1.

Here, In 2nd line of Passage A we get ‘requirement increase’ which replaces the words need is growing. Again the line starts with ‘Although modern information technologies’ that can replace technological development. 

Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase.

**So, Answer of Q 22 is TRUE

Step 3: When we got the answer in the passage A so early then read the next question with the earlier remaining one of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type question. And repeat following step 1 and step 2.

Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.

NB: Any move in industries?

Q#24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.

NB: Car Expensive in EU.

…..the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.

In the last segment of 1st paragraph we get number of cars increase in EU roads, here nothing about car expenses.

So,  the answer for Q#24 is NOT GIVEN

Step 4: If we get the answer of one of the above question in passage A then again go for next question with the earlier unsolved one of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type question. And repeat following step 1 and step 2. By the way if we  just finished of reading passage A. Then try out to give heading for passage A thus read the list of heading  carefully to mark out the key points. And must look for the paragraph A heading.

Here, we don’t get the answer of Q#23. So we need to read the heading list and mark the key points of each heading. Also search for the heading of paragraph A.

i    A fresh and important long-term goal

NB: Fresh goal (of transportation)

ii  Charging for roads and improving other transport methods

NB: Charging, improving methods

iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported

NB: Changes affecting goods transport.

iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns

NB: Taking all the steps to change.

v  The environmental costs of road transport

NB: About environment.

vi  The escalating cost of rail transport

NB: About rail.

vii The need to achieve transport rebalance

NB: Achieve re-balance.

viii The rapid growth of private transport

NB: Rapid growth of Private one.

Here, 4th line of the passage A says, spectacular growth in car use  which means Rapid growth of private.

For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.

**So the answer for Q#14 is viii

ix  Plans to develop major road networks

NB: Plans for networks

x  Restricting road use through charging policies alone

NB: Restrict road charging policies alone

xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission

NB: countries awaiting EU admission.

Step 5: Just pen through the marking point of heading list that we match earlier. Now call your memory for the earlier unsolved question and also read and mark the next new one of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type question. Now start reading Passage B. At the same time mark the key points of 1st line of passage B.

Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.

Q#25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.

NB: When Gothenburg European Council set up?

As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production.

In the 1st sentence we get- goods transport changes due to… 

Q#23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.

This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.

Here in 3rd line of Passage B says that ”relocation of industries that are labour intensive to reduce production cost” where as Q#23 mentioned that industries moved, closer to consumers and reduce production cost. now if we compare relatively then we get industries moved closer to labour not to consumers to reduce production cost.

**So the answer of Q#23 is FALSE.

Step 6: Now read next question of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type and mark key-words then continue reading the passage. If we get it in this passage then go for the next question. If not then look for the passage heading from List of Heading. Now we only look through our marked key words in the list and try to match one from the list with our 1st line marked keywords that have already been done in the 4th step. *** when we get confused with two or three heading then mark all of them serially depending upon our preference.

Q#25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.

NB: When Gothenburg European Council set up?

Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.

Here, in passage B we didn’t get the answer of Q#25 so we look for the heading of B

From 4th step we get the keywords for 1st line of Passage B is- goods transport changes due to…  that clearly match with the heading line iii

iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported

NB: Changes affecting goods transport.

** So the answer for Q#15 is iii

Step 7: Now  just follow the Step 5 and Step 6 until getting all of the answers of the questions of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type. After that we just read the first line of a paragraph and mark the key-words and then try to match with the key words of our List heading key-words.

Paragraph C starts with the line-

The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage traffic.

NB: Countries candidates to entry EU increase transport.

Now match it with List of heading keywords-

xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission

NB: Countries awaiting EU admission.

Here, Countries  candidates can be used for Countries awaiting,  To entry means Admission and transport trends replace for increase transport .

**So the answer for Q#16 is xi

Now look for the Q#25 and Q#26 in this paragraph C.

Q#25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.

NB: When Gothenburg European Council set up?

Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.

Nothing found in this paragraph now we go for next paragraph that is D and mark the key-words of 1st line then match with the rest Heading list.

However, a new imperative-sustainable development – offers an opportunity for adapting the EU’s common transport policy.

i    A fresh and important long-term goal

NB: Fresh goal (of transportation)

**So the answer for the Q#17 is i

Now in this paragraph we get-Gothenburg European Council proposed measures will ideally be in place in 30 years’ time, that is by 2040. 

…the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years’ time, that is by 2040.

But nothing found about the set up time of Gothenburg European Council.

So the answer of Q#25 is NOT GIVEN.

Thus we have only one TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type question-

Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.

Now with this Q#26 move on to the next paragraph E. where 1st line is-

In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2,the leading greenhouse gas.

That greenhouse gas emission is the environmental cost of transport sector.The list of heading v expresses the ideas of paragraph E.

v  The environmental costs of road transport

NB: About environment.

So the answer of Q#18 is v

Now read the rest of the paragraph for Q#26.

Q#26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

NB: CO2 emissions reach 739 billion tonnes.

According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020, compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport.

From the paragraaph we got –CO2 emissions reach 1,113 billion tonnes.

**So the answer of Q#26. is FALSE

Now we got solution of all of the questions of TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN type. So we will explain only the 1st line of rest paragraphs to get a heading for each. Solution for paragraph F is given so we go for paragraph G. 1st line of paragraph G is-

The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing.

x  Restricting road use through charging policies alone

NB: Restrict road charging policies alone

Here Pricing means charging policies and solely means alone.

** So the answer for Q#19 is x

Now the 1st line of paragraph H is-

The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology).

ii  Charging for roads and improving other transport methods

NB: Charging, improving methods

Here increase replaces improving and modes for method.

** So the answer of Q#20 is ii

Now the 1st line of paragraph is-

The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network.

iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns

NB: Taking all the steps to change.

a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport – this line can replace all steps.

Here we can be confused with heading ix

ix  Plans to develop major road networks

NB: Plans for networks

Here targeting investment in the trans-European network though indicates Plans for network of roads. But we can not take this heading because it denies all other plans that mentioned first part of the line.

**So the answer for Q#21 is iv